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3-4000 years ago, there began the Persian history when the Aryan migrated from the middle Asia to Persia(Iran, the present). For a long time, several kingdoms were established and lost, and small countries were founded here and there. "Tchoga Zanbil", the remains of "ancient Eram kingdom" (which was one of those small countries) was found in the western Iran in, say, 1935. During the long period by thousands and hundreds of years, the remains of ancient history have rested. The discovery for tracing the everlasting history will last hereafter too.

The remains, over 3000years"Tchoga Zanbil"

Now the remarkable turning point of Persian history is said to be around the 6th century B.C. It was the fact that the Achaemenes dynasty Persia, which has been commanded by CyrusII of the Pers nation, defeated the Media nation which has been expanded their power already, and also Persia integrated the surrounding nations and states into a unified nation.

The capital constructed by CyrusII"Pasargadae"

Relief of DareiosI
the figure, wearing a hat called Kidaris, with golden stick in hand, sitting on a tall throne.

( It is said that the origin of the word Persia came from this nation name "Pers". )
CyrusII respected the culture of nations, and allowed a certain autonomy, and also he released slaves and prisoners with a generous policy of governing. This attractive nation accelerated its expansion, which spreaded as far as Egypt in his son's era. His heroism was so great that the story is introduced in the Old Testament.
In the period of the third generation DareiosI, this empire developed furthermore. They unified all Orient, where they have expanded until then, with the centralized systems, and their policies prepared with ruling and overseeing brought prosperity and increase in tax revenue. And also, in his era, the constraction of the famous world heritage "Persepolis" palace was undertaken. On the Vernal Equinox Day, as the first day of a year, various tributes were offered by nations all over the Orient, and there was a cheerful atmosphere in the palace.
However, while enjoying the most prosperous years, during the period ruled by DareiosIII, there were severe fight against Gresia over and over again. And moreover, the people, who were unhappy with the apotheosis king sovereignty establishment, revolted against sovereign everywhere, and finally they were defeated with the fall of Persepolis by the Makedonian army commanded by Alexander the Great who were on the way of an expedition to the Orient. In 330A.D., the Achaemenes dynasty was fallen.

The evidences of Kings' dream, as the conqueror over the ancient Orient "Persepolis"

On the other hand, many people wanted to spend a gorgeous days like the former Achaemenes dynasty. At Pers, the cradle of the Achaemenes dynasty, the Sasan dynasty was established and attacked Parthia. They expanded gradually from southern part, and revived a Persian nation named Sasan dynasty Persia in 226B.C.
The Sasan dynasty introduced a centralization rule same as the Achaemenes dynasty, and on the other hand, they continued to build up their own Persian culture with the active deplomatic relations with India and China in the east and with the Roman Empire in the west.

In the Sasan dynasty era, the Islam was formed in the Arabian region wich is located in the south-east of Persia. The aggressive (in that age) Arabian people, who were represented by the famous phrase "the Koran in the left hand, the sword in the right hand", gradually invaded the Sasan Dynasty territory with an intention of obtaining the Persian gold, silver, and carpets. The Sasan Dynasty was defeated again and again, and finally came to the end practically in 642B.C. And also, it was around this year that the Islam was officially introduced as the state religion on behalf of the Zoroastrianism.

Even though during such era of wealth, there occurred conflict, and the Qajar Dynasty governed it for 150years until 1925, the year of World War I. It was around that year when their capital was placed at Teheran.

Quajar Dynasty had lost their prestige so seriously that they were preyed by the nations which were excitedly trying to get the concession for oil. During such period, the former Cossack commander Reda-Khan (later, Reda-Shah) there appeared suddenly like a comet to plot for the coup d'etat, and succeeded in 1921 with the support of Great Britain. And 4years later, with an overwhelming support of the nation, he decided to take the job of Emperor of Pahlevi Dynasty.
Reda-Shah promoted the modernization of Army etc., and aimed at the reconstruction of a strong nation, but at the world warII he allied with Germany, and so Persia was invaded by the Allied Forces which caused him to abdicate from the Shah.

Pahlevi's "Sadabad Palace" ...still remains in Teheran.

As mentioned above, while Iran (renamed from Persia in 1935) had weaken their own domestic administration, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom had weaken the Iranian national power more and more in connection with the oil. At that time, it was Muhammad Reda Pahlevi who came into power.
He promoted the modernization named "White Revolution" and attempted to reconstruct their country under the guidance of U.S.A.
Though Pahlevi worked on various policies with a strong beliefs to get back the glorious Persia, somehow the beliefs were too strong, he faced a serious opposition of people who were complaining of a cleavage in society between rich and poor, which cleavage had been formed by and during the rapid promotion somehow too impatient at the revolution. Not only such complain from the people, he became to face another opposition of the Islam party too, who were anxious about their government is too much pro-American to lose its own independent way, and who were afraid with saying "possibly, should become to be an client state of America".
At this opportunity, the Islam party, taking the people into their side, raised Iran·Islam Revolution in 1979 represented by the Reverend Mr.Khomeini, which caused extinction of the last Persian Dynasty Pahlevids.
Whether that impatient modernization was right or a nation which makes much of religion and culture is right... this question is a quite difficult theme even for the people living in the present day.


The first great Empire in the world history which ruled all over the West Asia. The Persepolis was constructed in the age of DareiosI. The Pazyryk carpet discovered in 20th century is supposed to be made at this era. This dynasty was defeated by Alexander the Great who was on the way for an expedition to the Orient.

In the age of MithridatesII, they entered into a relation for exchange with Han. (This exchage route was later developed as the Silk Road.)

Against the background of an absolute monarchy with the state religion Zoroastrianism, they were prospering in culture as an center influential in Europe too.

The Sasan dynasty was defeated by the Arabian, then the Islam was brought in.

Ferdowsi "The Book of Kings" was completed

The Seljuk Dynasty was destroyed by Ginghis Khan, and governed by Mongolian.

The most important era, so-called, in the history of Persian carpet. Especially, Shah AbbasI, the fifth generation, was well up on arts and crafts, and widely contributed to the development of Persian culture.

By the impatient modernization policy, the best prosperity and stability among the Eastern Europe were brought to, but perished by the revolution came from the opposition with religion society.

In April 1979 the party, in power after the revolution, made the Reverend Mr.Khomeini the first man in the country, and declared the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Determined the Islam Law as the nation's law, and formed the national system which unified politics with religion.

The Empire, after fallen by Alexander, were governed by Parthian people, a nomadic tribe who were expanding from east Caspian sea. In this age, different from Late Achaemenes dynasty which made a point of ruling and overseeing, there started free trade with surrounding nations, also the philosophy and religion (Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Buddhism ...) there became prosperous, and so on, there was a great turning point too for the human beings. Persia was prosperous as the starting point and the relaying point of the Silk Road connecting the West and Asia, and also the Asian silk was introduced into the carpet.

When you click the picture, the enlarged will be shown.

After that, for a long term nearly 1000years, the Persia had been governed by different nations (Arabian, Turkish, Mongolian). And at last in 1501, the first year of the 16th century, the Persian Safavids (Dynasty) was established and they sloughed off the then Mongolian rule.

A picture titled "Shah AbbasII, welcoming Turkish executive" possessed by "Chehelsotoun Palace" in Esfahan

"Imam Square" ...people gathering then and now, holding busy bazaar in the neighborhood.

In this era, many kings like Shah Abbas actively supported art, and their own Persian culture made exciting progress after a long stagnation. The typical example of their exciting progress is the "Imam Square" in Isfahan the then capital. A spate of gorgeous palaces and mosques surrounded the magnificent square. The Imam Square is a symbol of prosperity of the Safavids (Dynasty) which liberated the Persian people from the long-standing different nations' control and enjoyed their full fluorish.
Mostly carpet and silk fabrics comes and goes among the people as a symbol of wealth, and a lot of artistic gem were produced by the studios through hard competition.

"Princess Farah" ...Pahlavi's wife

By revolution which was the trigger for the Islamic Republic of Iran, "anti-American" image has been formed. But it could be said that this is one of mintage advertised by America for the purpose of sanction after they became to face the difficulty of getting oil there. If you look at the open-minded, friendly and vigorous behavior of the Iranian people, everyone will immediately understand that Iran is not a dangerous country. Such Iran in recent years are shown at the page Recent Iran, please check it too.